Determination of some physical and chemical parameters in soil, fruit and vegetable samples from Hawul Local Government Area, Borno State Nigeria.

1Usman Y.B and 2Kolo B.G.


This study aimed at assessing the levels of some physical and chemical parameters in Fruits and Vegetables. Mango (Mangifera indica) and Guava (Psidium guajava) and vegetables Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) were freshly harvested from the Sakwa and Marama Agricultural areas in Hawul Local Government Area, Borno State Nigeria. Vegetable samples were partitioned into root, stem, leave and fruit for the determination of ions (Ca2+, K+, Na+, SO42- and NO3-) and Heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni and Zn). Soil samples were also collected at different depths from the three locations for the determination of physicochemical parameters (pH, Electronic Conductivity, Cation Exchange Capacity,



Organic Carbon and Organic Matter) and the above ions and heavy metals. Sample collection and preparation was conducted using standard procedures. The concentration of heavy metal were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (Perkin Elmer Analyst 200 Model), concentration of ions were determine using UV Visible Smart Spectrophotometer (LaMotte 2000 model). The analysed physical parameters were detected in the soils of all the three locations. pH ranged from 5.64±0.43 to 6.53±0.34 with highest value of 6.53±0.34 at 20 – 30 cm depth in Thila, Electrical conductivity (EC) ranged from 281.00±73.34 to 726.75±416.50 (µscm-1) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) Ranged from 41.22±4.89 to 76.51±20.00 (C.Mol/Kg) these values are statistically significant (p<0.05). Sodium ion (Na+) showed highest concentration in fruits of Sakwa with a value ranged from 11.88±0.99 to 17.44±2.55 (µg/g) while NO3- showed the lowest concentration that ranged from 0.77±0.26 to 2.74±1.55 (µg/g) and were also statistically significant at (p<0.05). The concentrations of the other parameter were all within the acceptable limit as compared with FAO/WHO, FEPA and EPA.




Submitted by