PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF WATER AND SEDIMENT SAMPLES OF KUMADUGU-YOBE AND LAKE CHAD BASIN SURFACE WATER IN NORTH –EASTERN, NIGERIA.

1 B.G. Kolo and 2 Waziri,M.

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri.P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Maiduguri.P.M.B 1069, Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria

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Abstract

The physicochemical and bacteriological pollution indicators in the Kumadugu-Yobe and some portion of Lake Chad basin in the North Eastern, Nigeria were investigated in water and sediments samples. A total of 250 samples were collected by standard method from Nguru (A); Gashua (B); Geidam (C), Baga (D), Marte (E) and Wulgo (F) during dry (March to May) and wet (July to September) season respectively. Results showed varying concentration and values with respect to season and location. Physicochemical parameters showed significant difference between seasons P< 0.05. High mean BOD values were observed in water sample B (Gashua), D (Baga) and E (marte) with values ranging from 6.63±0.03, 4.62 ± 0.04 and 3.40±0.09mg/l respectively. The values correlates’ to lower mean DO values ranging from 5.67 ±0.54 to 7.48±0, 72 mg/l across the area. Temperature, PH, total solid, hardness, alkalinity, and trace elemental concentration in water and sediments samples were within the WHO permissible limit except Iron (Fe) which showed higher values of 26.35±0.23mg/l. The turbidity mean value of 12.30±0.21Ntu was also high during the rainy season which may be attributed to the high deposition of domestic waste and agricultural runoff to the river during rainy season. Presumption and conformity test showed varying coliform count with 17% excellent, 3.2% satisfactory, and 22.3% intermediately polluted and 16% grossly polluted. The Microbial examination results could be associated with high turbidity levels most especially during the rainy season which suggested water to be highly polluted and hence not suitable for human consumption. Further treatment of water by inhabitants across the area before usage is highly recommended.

Keyword: Physicochemical, Water and Sediment, kumadugu-yobe, Lake Chad basin, North –Eastern Nigeria.